Llevo meses buscando información sobre la reforma migratoria (de Obama) de Estados Unidos y he compilado una cantidad significativa de material sobre la misma. El primer documento obviamente es la reforma de 884 fojas (immigration reform US) que vale la pena leer a detenimiento si se tiene tiempo porque recupera distintas nociones que se deben trabajar con detenimiento en el estudio actual de los fenómenos migratorios y fronterizos. Si no quieren leer la reforma completa pero les interesa estar enterados de los puntos más significativos también pueden consultar el Outline of the Senate Bill (solo son 17 cuartillas). Además de estas fuentes existen cantidad de artículos, columnas, notas y demás que hablan sobre los pros, contras, beneficiarios, detractores, etc. A continuación copiaré algunos de los que me han resultado más interesantes.
En primer lugar recomiendo “Two ways immigration reform could succeed and three ways it could fail“, By Dylan Matthews, Published: May 24, 2013 at 2:00 pm. The Washintong Post. De este artículo sólo citaré la parte que se refiere a las tres “B” (The three Bs):
The three other issues that could pose problems for the bill are summed up well by what Fitz calls “the three Bs”: border security, benefits and biometrics. “There’s obviously going to be amendments to try to increase security at the border,” Martínez-De-Castro says. Fitz expects amendments calling for more border fencing, double-layered fences and so forth. While some compromises are possible, the bill is already very aggressive on the issue. “We don’t think that they have any more room to give on border stuff because of how much has been done and that most of what they want to talk about doing now, and the resources they want to throw at the border, really are not a serious effort to strengthen border security but a political effort from people offering it to block the bill,” he says.
As the disputes in the House Gang of Eight on health benefits show, eligibility for federal benefit programs could be an issue. An amendment to prevent newly legalized immigrants from receiving the Earned Income Tax Credit failed in committee, but Sen. Chuck Schumer (Ill.), a leading Democrat in the Senate Gang of Eight, has suggestedhe’s open to that change. “[Sens. Jeff] Sessions and [Orrin] Hatch we’ll see on the benefits stuff,” Fitz predicts. Hatch (R-Utah), who backed the bill in committee but hasn’t committed to supporting it on the floor, will likely offer amendments barring newly legalized immigrants from collecting Social Security for work done when in the country illegally and restricting the ability of HHS to provide welfare benefits to immigrants.
And then there’s biometrics. Republicans in the Senate, notably Sessions, have promoted a biometric entry/exit system at U.S. airports. “I do see the visa exit system question resurfacing,” Fitz says. During markup, “Sessions was red in the face andincensed about some DHS report on biometrics…that’s something he’s going to be coming back to, and there’s obviously a lot of support on it from both sides of the aisle.”
En segundo lugar mencionaré el texto titulado “Senate vote starts immigration debate” BY LISA MASCARO AND CHRISTI PARSONS June 11, 2013, 1:47 p.m. Los Angeles Times.
The bill is the most ambitious attempt by Congress to overhaul the immigration laws in a generation, and has gained momentum in a political environment where Republicans and Democrats both want to court the growing Latino vote.
The legislation is expected to be the subject of a robust debate in the weeks ahead, with a final vote seen by the end of the month. New television ads in support of the bill were launched Tuesday by a powerful labor union, the SEIU, while the conservative Heritage Foundation urged senators to vote against it, warning immigrants who gain legal status would be a drain on the government.
Along with increased border security and the path to citizenship, the bill attempts to stem the future flow of illegal crossings by creating guest-worker programs for low- and high-skilled labor, and requiring all businesses to verify the legal status of new employees.
En tercer lugar la nota titulada “Con 82 votos a favor y 15 en contra, el Senado de EU aprueba debatir formalmente la reforma migratoria“, Publicado por: redactorawebAS Fecha de publicación: 11/06/2013. Emeequis:
Washington, DC, 11 de junio.- La propuesta de ley para una amplia reforma migratoria en Estados Unidos superó este martes con cómodo margen uno de los principales obstáculos que afrontaba en el Senado, aunque pese a ello aún tiene ante sí un largo y difícil camino legislativo que se intensificará en las próximas semanas.
La legislación S.744, que propone una vía condicionada para la legalización de 11 millones de indocumentados, recibió un total de 82 votos a favor y 15 en contra en la primera votación del texto en el pleno del Senado, que sirvió para cerrar los debates preliminares y evitar así el filibusterismo o bloqueo de la normativa.
The bipartisan immigration bill that passed the Senate Judiciary Committee last month is now being sent to meet its fate on the Senate floor. While its chances of passage there look promising, there remains much uncertainty about how much — and how badly — the bill will be changed in the coming three weeks of debate.
The bill is imperfect as it is, adding too many layers of border enforcement and too many obstacles on its overlong path to citizenship. But at least it has a path, one that gives 11 million people a reasonable chance to get on the right side of the law. Democratic leaders and the bipartisan coalition that brought the bill this far need to stand firm to protect its carefully drawn compromises and to ensure that its irreplaceable core — the citizenship path — survives.
We know how opponents view the bill — as an irredeemable “amnesty” measure — and some of the ways they will try to kill it. Senator Jeff Sessions, a Republican of Alabama, began the barrage early, with a long floor speech on Friday full of dire warnings and outright falsehoods. For instance, he accused the Obama administration of failing to enforce existing immigration laws, saying that “virtually no one is being deported,” which would no doubt surprise a million-and-a-half deportees. He complained that the bill didn’t do enough at the border, even though it lavishes billions of dollars on border drones and troops on top of decades’ worth of existing militarization. As The Times reported on Friday, defense contractors are slavering over immigration reform as the best thing for their bottom lines since Iraq.
Finalmente, una aportación propia sobre la reforma: